Uncategorized Sep 01, 2020
Seedlings take long time bear fruit but the grafted plants can give fruits within 1 to 2 years, Grafting techniques use to escape from certain diseases in some crop for Example many ornamental do not seeds at the same time they do not root easily from stem cuttings ,for the multiplication of such plants grafting techniques is necessary. Grafting is helpful to produce composite plants with many varieties and for the rejuvenation of the old trees.
Grafting means uniting two plants of the same species, shoot of a required variety plant is grafted on a seedling with a stout root system, Normally two different species will not unite even then inter specific combination is possible in citrus, Sapota and grape etc. Grafting is restricted only to dicot plants, it is not possible in monocot plants like areca nut and coconut.
Graft plant has two two parts,lower portion is from the seedling and its called seedling and upper portion is from the mother plant is called scion .Root stock should be a study disease free seedling with a strong tap root system. Graft plant is dwarf by nature since it is from a lateral shoot, it spreds wider than its height this helps for pruning ,harvesting and for other cultural operations.
ADVANTAGES OF GRAFTING
Growth Speed: It is quicker than growing a whole new plant,saving even more time, as well as money and space.
Change in the quality of fruit:Grafting lets you change the variety of the fruits or other crops you’re growing. also helps in improving its fruit quality
Repair: Grafting lets you repair damage to existing plants or trees.
Pollination: Some trees need to cross-pollinate with another fruit tree or they won’t be productive.
METHODS OF GRAFTING
SOFT WOOD GRAFTING-Grow seedling in a poly bag for one season even the older plant is used, Grafting is on the green soft portion of the plant, hence it is called soft wood grafting. Grafting method is as usual cut off the root stock above the green portion of the stem keep a few leaves below make slit of one and half to two inch length give slant cut on both the sides of the scion and then keep root stock and tied with a plastic strip . Example -Mango, Sapota, Jack fruit, Cashew, Tamadrind etc
Select healthy twig for layering and make two knife marks around the bark and twig out a ring of bark, scrape the cell layer on the stem to avoid re joining of the bark, to induce more roots IBA harmone of 500ppm concentration may be applied . Sphagnum moss is used as rooting media . saw dust and powdered organic manure are also used as rooting media. After rooting remove the mother plant. Example-Guava , Pomegranet ,lemon, Hibiscus, and etc
Selecting the twig of the mother plant which matches with the stem of the seedling in size, for both stems level cuts are given and tied together.Example-Mango, Sapota, champaka etc,,